Types of Agriculture in Nigeria

With the recent boost in Agriculture in recent years, many young ones and old ones alike are engaging in Agriculture. No wonder, this article that discusses types of Agriculture in Nigeria is timely and necessary.

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Agriculture is defined as the act of cultivating plants and rearing farm animals for food or other commercial purposes. Agriculture in Nigeria today is booming because of her fertile soil, diverse climatic conditions, large land mass, active labor force. And that  encourages fish farming, livestock production, tree production and crop farming.

The transformation Agenda and Change Initiative of various administrations in Nigeria seek to encourage the use of locally made goods. Most raw materials used in local productions are gotten from Agriculture. The slogan ‘Use Naija to grow Naija’ no has motivated many to curb unemployment by engaging in Agriculture in Nigeria today.

This Nigerian Agricultural fact gives room for two major types of Agriculture in Nigeria namely;

  • Subsistence Farming
  • Commercial or Industrialized Farming

Subsistence Farming

Subsistence farming is common in the rural areas of Nigeria. It’s when a farmer produces just enough food crop or livestock to sustain his family and makes little income.

This type of Agriculture is labor intensive because the farmer doesn’t have the resources to hire laborers or farm machinery.

Subsistence farmers usually employs the help of members of their immediate or extended families to help out in farm work.

Most times Farm animals serves as an alternative source of labor.  Also, there is no provision for preservation of farm produce since the produce is for immediately consumption by family members.  The left over are given as gifts to friends and neighbors. Or used as a form of exchange to acquire other things needed in the home.

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During bountiful harvest, he may sale off some of the cash crops in the local market. Subsistence farmers grow Crops like maize, yam, sugarcane, pepper, okro, cocoyam, cassava, tomatoes etc. Livestock are goats, cows, rabbit, sheep, birds etc.

In addition,  in this type of Agriculture in Nigeria, the farmer relies on the money he has saved over time as capital.  Accessing loans is usually difficult since the farmer does not make enough to meet up with the conditions of the loan.

In this type of agricultural practice, the use of fertilizers and other modern Agricultural practices are avoided. The farmer depends on his family land or community land.

Commercial or Industrialized Farming

This type of Agriculture in Nigeria is the act of practicing large scale farming with the sole aim of making profits. Mechanized and modern system of farming is practiced to boost Agricultural production.

Cash crops such as cocoa, rubber, rice, cotton, palm oil, sugarcane etc. are grown and exported in commercial farming.

Commercial farming is capital intensive; often time, farmers receive loans from the Government, Banks, NGOs or other Cooperate Organizations. The farmer puts his best efforts to make sure that the business is making profit so he can meet up with the demands of his investors.

In Industrialized type of Farming in Nigeria, it is very common to see farmers who belong to self-help groups or cooperative societies to help fund their business.

Industrialized farming is able to produce food crops and livestock in large quantity because of use of fertilizers, farm machinery, irrigation practices, and other efficient farm practices. There are provisions for preserving of perishable farm products. Or tech to convert perishables to raw materials

This type of Farming in Nigeria requires a large land mass. Because crops/animal farm need space to thrive well.Also, the farmer can cultivate more than one crop or rear more than one specie of livestock the same time.

The farm Manager in Commercial farming keeps proper record to take note when the business needs an adjustment or is not making enough profit.  This type of farming does not require a lot of man power but needs a lot of brain work.

Having discussed the Types of Farming in Nigeria, it’s also important to know the types of Agricultural Practices in Nigeria, and they are;

Shifting Cultivation

This Agricultural practice is mainly common in areas where lands are readily available. Farmers cultivate a particular land for a while, when the fertility of the land decreases the farmers leave the land fallow. Weeds grow overtime on the land, which boosts the fertility of the soil after some years.

The farmers come back to the land after it regains its fertility. This farm practice is losing its popularity in big cities because of massive population growth which results in scarcity of land.

Mixed Farming

Mixed farming is the act of cultivating of crops and rearing of animals in a particular piece of land. The animals feed on the weeds from the crop farming and the animal waste serve as manure to the crops.

Normadic Farming

This Agricultural practice is very common in the Northern part of Nigeria. Here herders travel with their animals to places where there are very fertile vegetation.

Plantation Farming

This Agricultural practice involves planting of tree crops like sugar cane, plantains, coconuts, rubber, groundnut etc. plantations are predominant in the southern part of Nigeria because of its rain forest land.

Types of Agriculture in Nigeria – Conclusion

If you’re a student making research on types of agriculture in Nigeria, I strongly recommend you get an agricultural textbook. This article is for informational purpose therefore cannot be as detailed as it ought to be.

Though, it contains the basic facts on types of agriculture in Nigeria, yet I suggest you consult other agricultural text books for a broad knowledge on type of agriculture in Nigeria.

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